type 2 diabetes mellitus
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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Dec 28, 2022

What is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder (carbohydrate metabolism) that is characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance and inability to regulate the use of sugar (glucose)

The Primary problems are

  1. The Pancreas does not produce enough insulin (Type 1) or if your body resists or does not use the insulin produced by the pancreas (Type 2)
  2. With low insulin or no proper usage of insulin, the body cannot regulate the flow of sugar and intake of sugar by the body's cells

It is one of the most common chronic (long-term) conditions in the world, affecting over 350 million people worldwide and increasing at an alarming rate.

Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes mellitus worldwide, with prevalence rates ranging from 0.5–1% among non-obese individuals with no known risk factors (such as being overweight), up to 10–15% among obese individuals with elevated lipid (fat and cholesterol) levels (high triglycerides) or high blood pressure.

How does Type 2 diabetes differ from Type 1, does it affect a specific age group? 

Type 2 diabetes is not only genetic but also due to lifestyle and health factors


Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Primary Problem

Pancreas Cells fail to produce insulin

Low insulin is produced as the body does not effectively use it


Any age but develops at a Young age majorly

Develops at any age but majorly in adults (most common)

Body Weight

Normal Body weight or Thin

Fat & Obese


Maintain insulin level in the body with injection

Healthy diet & lifestyle, Blood Sugar monitoring, Medicines





Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  • Increase in thirst
  • Increase in hunger (Want to eat a lot)
  • Frequent Urination (Passing Urine always)
  • Weight loss, even when you eat a lot of food
  • Blurred vision, especially at night. This can be a sign of low blood pressure or high triglycerides, which are linked to diabetes mellitus symptoms and exacerbate these conditions over time if  left untreated  
  • Fatigue, which makes it difficult to sleep or do physical activity
  • Nausea or Vomiting every morning before breakfast because one has not eaten enough food during the day  
  • A lot of infections and wounds heal very slowly
  • Sweating, Shaking, Confusion, Dizzy feeling, going Numb


Causes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The causes of Type 2 diabetes mellitus include:

  1. Genetic predisposition: People with a family history of the condition are more likely to develop  it than those who do not have that history
  2. Obesity or Overweight: Becoming overweight or obese is another cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This can increase of risk developing the disorder by up to 80%
  3. Lack of physical activity and high-calorie diet. Being inactive leads to changes in the body composition which increases blood glucose levels and contributes to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus over time.
  4. Depression, Stress, Smoking, Lack of Sleep, and High blood pressure

Eating too many processed foods may also increase the risk of developing this condition because eating too much sugar can cause weight gain, which increases insulin resistance


Dangerous effects of Type 2 diabetes mellitus

If left untreated or inadequately treated, it can lead to cardiovascular disease and kidney failure within 10 to 20 years

The complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus include 

  • Kidney damage or Failure
    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of severe damage or failure of the kidneys and is associated with increased death rates from heart attacks and stroke
  • Blindness or slow loss of vision
    It occurs because of blood vessel damage in the back part of the eye, where it's difficult to see clearly until it reaches Stage 3 or 4. This can cause blindness even further if not treated properly
  • Nerve Damage (Neuropathy)
    Damage and destruction of nerves that can result in loss of feeling or any senses in the fingers, legs, or part of the body where the damage has occurred
  • Healing Problems and Leg Amputation (removing limbs that do not heal)
  • Heart disease, Stroke, and High blood pressure (blood vessels becoming narrow)


What are Hypoglycemia & Hyperglycemia conditions?

hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia or Low Blood Sugar

This is a condition of low blood sugar levels in the body and the causes are

  • Not eating properly for the insulin taken via injection
  • Not taking insulin on time or taking excess or overdose of insulin
  • Not following a healthy lifestyle or diet
  • Drinking Alcohol
  • Too much fat content in food or intake of junk food
  • Lack of physical exercise or work

Symptoms of Hypoglycemia: Hunger, sweating, increased heart rate, and shakiness.

If you feel any of these symptoms, carry and eat any food with some sugar in it; or take some sugary juice, chocolate, or sweet before you faint or go unconscious. 

Hyperglycemia or High Blood Sugar

This is a condition of high blood sugar levels in the body and occurs due to

  • Body not utilizing insulin properly to control blood sugar levels
  • Not taking diabetes medicines or insulin properly on time
  • Not following a proper or healthy diet and food plans
  • Physical or Emotional Stress, illness, or infection in the body

Symptoms of Hyperglycemia: Frequent thirsty feeling despite drinking lots of water and other fluids, tingling sensation in hands or feet, blurred vision, and feeling extremely tired even after a full night's sleep.

Treatment of hyperglycemia involves 

  • Eating small amounts of food continuously throughout the day so that there is always a correct amount of sugar present for proper metabolic functions in our body
  • Not skipping meals
  • Following a healthy lifestyle
  • Proper intake of anti-diabetic medications so that blood sugar levels do not increase to abnormal levels


What are the Tests & Diagnostics for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? 

The most common tests used to diagnose type 2 diabetes mellitus are:

  • Fasting plasma glucose test (FPGT) - This is a blood test, which measures the amount of glucose in your bloodstream. It can be done after an overnight fast or on an empty stomach
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) - This is an oral test that determines how well one’s body uses carbohydrates for energy production over time. Its process starts with giving you either a liquid sugar drink or solid sugary food that contains carbohydrates and then measures how much energy it takes for your body to use the available carbohydrates during a period after consuming these foods
  • Random blood sugar test - The random blood glucose test is done using a glucometer and test strips at any random time of the day to check the amount of glucose present in the blood. Other confirmation tests must be taken to confirm type 2 diabetes if the blood sugar level is greater than 200mg/dl and the condition must be diagnosed
  • HbA1c test - This test is used to check average blood glucose levels for 2 to 3 months of time. It is usually done to check how well the person has managed type 2 diabetes mellitus by taking medicines or insulin. If the HbA1c level is above 6.5 percent your doctor will confirm if you have a diabetic condition
  • Other Tests
    Blood pressure test
    Eye and vision test
    Foot and infection check
    Lipid profile (Fat & Cholesterol check)
    Kidney & Liver function test (KFT, LFT)
    Vitamin B12 test


Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

For people with Type 2 diabetes, Insulin is recommended based on the severity of the disorder. The usual treatment for Type 2 diabetes is dietary and lifestyle changes with medications.

Taking medicines at the right time as advised by your doctor, doing a lot of physical activity, reducing physical and mental stress, sleeping properly, eating healthy food, and drinking a lot of water and healthy fluids, all these lifestyle changes must be followed to improve your health condition when you have type 2 diabetes mellitus

What are the foods that must be taken and avoided for Hypoglycemia & Hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia (High Sugar): 



1. "White" Foods: White rice, French fries, flour tortillas (corn flour)

2. Canned food that is rich in sodium such as  vegetables, beans, and ready-to-cook food (high salt & preservative content)

3. Sugar-filled foods such as chocolates, candy,  sugar pop, jam, and jelly

4. Caffeine and alcohol in any form  

5. Junk food such as chips, puffs, and soft  drinks

1. Whole grains such as wheat, oats, barley, and  brown rice

2. Tomatoes rich in Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Iron, and have a low glycemic index

3. Beans 

4. Nuts with fiber and magnesium 

5 Fish, ensure fry it in oil or cover it in bread  coating

6. Dark Green Leafy Veggies such as cauliflower, Spinach, and cucumber


Hypoglycemia (Low Sugar):

Chocolates, Sugary juices, and Sweets must be taken for immediate relief from low blood sugar levels but they must not be taken as part of the regular diet

Food that must be avoided 

Food that must be taken

1. White bread, white rice, and pasta 

2. Sugar-sweetened drinks 

3. Processed Meat

4. Spicy oily unhealthy food

5. Fat Foods and dairy products

6. Junk food: Pretzels, crackers, chips, french  fries, and other fried food

7. Alcohol

8. Caffeine is found in coffee, flavored coffee  drinks, and energy drinks

1. Scrambled or hard-boiled eggs 

2. Fruits (with limit) such as Apples, avocados, Peach or  Banana, blueberries, kiwifruit, peaches, or  sunflower seeds

3. Nuts such as almonds or walnuts 

4. Whole grain bread, oats 

5. Dried fruits, Honey, Fresh fruit juice

6. Fish and chicken 

7. Vegetables such as carrots, lentils,  broccoli, and sweet potatoes



Type 2 diabetes is a condition that has been increasing in prevalence over the last few decades. It is now estimated that around 65 million people worldwide have diabetes, with one-third of those living in developing countries. 

Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes and can develop at any age but most often starts after middle age but being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, however, especially in the case of Type 2 diabetes, it is possible to enjoy some of your favorite foods in small quantities while maintaining a balanced diet and physical exercise to ensure that blood sugar levels do not rise.

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