type 1 diabetes mellitus
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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Feb 03, 2023

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is a long-term condition in which the pancreas produces less insulin and sometimes it does not make insulin at all


What is Insulin? Why is it essential for the human body?

Insulin is a hormone that moves the sugar from the blood into various cells in the body used for activities and building energy.

When the pancreas produces less Insulin than required or does not produce Insulin, the blood sugar deposits rise as they no longer are absorbed and utilized by the body properly. If not diagnosed or treated, Diabetes can cause damage to the nervous system and organs and can be fatal


Causes of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

causes of diabetes mellitus type 1

  • Auto-immune disease - The immune system in one’s body attacks the cells in the pancreas where the Insulin is produced, assuming it is a foreign body instead of recognizing it as one of its own. The result is a lack or complete deficiency of Insulin
  • Genetic and hereditary reasons
  • Viral infections and exposure to chemicals
  • Eating unhealthy food and lack of physical activity
  • Stress
  • Obesity


Who is at risk of getting Type 1 Diabetes condition?

People are usually prone to Type 1 diabetes if their parents or brother or sister have them and passed them on in the genes, making them genetic and hereditary. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed early on when an individual is a child or teenager, usually under the age of 13


What are the Type 1 diabetes mellitus symptoms?

Diabetes symptoms are generally hard to spot and are mild. Hopefully, this table will effectively show you the different and unique symptoms of the disease

  • Sudden & Consistent  Weight Loss 
  • Frequent Urination
  • Blurred Vision
  • Tiredness
  • Increased Hunger 
  • Increased Thirst 
  • Frequent mood  changes
  • Recurring Infections


What parts of the body do Type 1 Diabetes affect and what are the dangerous consequences?

While the disease does cause problems that can even lead to death, it can be treated with medication and lifestyle changes. Diabetes usually affects the heart, kidneys, eyes, and legs however, the disease can also cause severe illness and imbalance in mental health as stated below

Some of the complications of Type 1 diabetes are: 

- Heart attack, heart stroke, or disease 

- Vision and hearing loss 

- Depression 

- Dementia 

- Soreness and damage to the legs which can result in amputation 

- Nerve Damage 

- Kidney Damage

- Skin & Bacterial infections 

- Gestational Diabetes complications are:  

- Risk of getting Type 2 diabetes 

- Jaundice 

- Still or premature birth 

- Overweight baby at birth 

- Low blood sugar 

- Higher risk of gestational Diabetes in future pregnancies 


How can Type 1 Diabetes be tested and diagnosed?  

The general rule is anyone showcasing the symptoms of Diabetes and whose family has a history of the same should get tested.

There is one test used to identify Type 1 Diabetes: 

The FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) tests your blood sugar level post an 8-hour fasting 

To reconfirm and verify the test doctors might also suggest conducting an A1C test which gives a historical report of the patient’s blood sugar levels over the previous three months. 


Who are the doctors who specifically treat and what is the treatment given for Type 1 Diabetes?

An endocrinologist is a specialist who diagnoses, treats, and manages pancreatic diseases. These doctors usually prescribe the treatment plan based on the type of Diabetes the patient has. 

People with Type 1 Diabetes, take Insulin shots or injections to restore the balance of blood sugar in the body. Various types of Insulin shots are prescribed and differ in how they react and how long they stay in  the system


What spots or areas on the body can Insulin Injection be taken?

  • Below the Abdomen where the body can absorb it easily
  • Thighs
  • Upper arms
  • Buttocks region

It is best to inject under the skin and always change the injection spots to avoid hard lumps or an increase in the thickness of the skin

insulin injection sites


What are the lifestyle changes and diet that must be followed when having Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Some key components to monitor and keep in mind while treating Type 1 Diabetes are:

Food that must be avoided 

Food that must be taken

Avoid food rich in starch and sugar such as  

• Bread 

• Cereal 

• Rice 

• Potatoes 

• Pasta 

• Chocolates, and other sweets 

• Alcohol & Caffeine  

• Soft/aerated drinks and juices 

Maintain a healthy diet with  

  • Fruits such as apples, pears,  strawberries, and blueberries
  • Green leafy vegetables such as  cauliflower, cucumber, broccoli, etc
  • Include whole grains such as wheat,  oats, barley, and brown rice as a large part of daily meals

The following foods are rich in vitamins, healthy  & low dairy fats, antioxidants, antibacterial &  nutritional elements and help in regulating  one’s blood sugar levels: 

• Chicken & Eggs 

• Flax Seeds 

• Nuts 

• Fatty Fish

• Jamun Berries

• Beans


- Split the amount of carbohydrates taken with each meal

- Minimum of 30 mins exercise (walking, cycling, swimming, and aerobics) every day can help. Daily physical movement transcends into other aspects of one’s life and results in better mood & sleep,  healthier weight, & stronger memory recall



Living with Diabetes does not mean a life less lived. Some elements of this disease are beyond one’s control, especially with Type 1 diabetes. Overall, incorporating a lifestyle that includes a healthy diet,  weight balance, and continuous exercise can help reduce the risk of this disease

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